Jainism, ajivika, and buddhism arose in the 6th cent. The rituals are not monotonous, senseless activities, but each one has deep meaning behind. Jainworld is a nonprofit organization dedicated to the preservation of jain tradition of wisdom, compassion, equality, brotherhood, universal wellbeing and spirituality. Jainism jainism ritual practices and religious institutions. Pilgrimage plays an important part in jain life for digambaras and some svetambaras. Jainism ritual practices and religious institutions. Common rituals and festivals additionally, as mentioned before, there are common rituals practiced everyday by jains. On pilgrimages, jains often visit temples and locations connected to tirthankaras. This book explains some basic jain values, beliefs, and practices through its narrative. Jainism is a religion and philosophy native to india founded in about the 6th century bc by the sage mahavira. The faith is named for the jinas, spiritual conquerors who have achieved liberation and perfection. These codes are heart of religion and keep it alive. Moksha liberation from an endless succession of lives through reincarnation is achieved by enlightenment, which can be attained only through asceticism. A svetambara monk and a bookstand sthapanacarya which symbolises his role and.
Jainism shares similarities with hinduism and buddhism, due in large part to the historical and cultural context in which it arose. Karya obligations which are followed and kriya worships which are performed. For example, all three traditions share a notion of karma as the actions of individuals that determine their future births, yet each has attached unique connotations to the concept. The texts containing the teachings of mahavira are called the agamas, and are the canonical literature the scriptures of svetambara jainism mahaviras disciples compiled his. India jainism practices jainism is not a pagan religion. The jain literature which was complied by ganadharas and srutkevlis is known as agam literature. Contact us 715 bellemeade place, alpharetta, ga 0004, usa. Additionally, many neopagans see the purpose of human life as recognizing their own. Holy book and place of worship of sikhism,jainism, buddhism. Jainism lays heavy emphasis on nonviolence ahimsa and the believers of this religion, whether a monk or a householder, follow a very strict, well disciplined life. It usually lasts for fortyeight minutes and during this. Rituals include obligations followed by jains and various forms of idol worships.
Jain ethics are meant for all men and women in every walk of life. There are no gods or god who will help humans on the road to liberation. Digambars use the following literature as the basis for their religious practice. Jainism is an eastern religion with origins in the indus river valley dating back to 3000 b. Guru is a sanskrit word for teacher, and within sikhism it is the title given to the 10 spiritual leaders of sikhism dating from 1469 ad to 1708 ad as well as the sri guru granth. The following list of books incorporates a number of salient points of view, and they would be especially good for those not raised as jains. Jinajineshwar another word for tirthankars, based on jai. Jainism offers a quiet, overwhelmingly serious way of life, a cultural insistence on compassion, a society of ethics that has dramatically changed the world and will continue to effect change. These writings are the basis of their ritual and religious life and are venerated in. The religious scripture of the jains are known as agama. Translated from the prakrit by hermann jacobi, 1884 from. Elaborate ritual in which temples and icons decorated and sacred texts recited. This book explains some basic jain values, beliefs, and practices through its.
There are six highly recommended books that together form an excellent literary introduction to jainism and the jain way of thinking. Devotees also recite jain texts, particularly the life stories of the. Jains see these texts, which are the transcriptions of lord mahavirs sermons, as sacred documents. Even religious scriptures were considered possessions and therefore. The philosophy cannot last unless it has support of conduct. Instead of reading religious books at the time of samayik, i might have read books like novels, dramas, technical books, or even worldly newspapers, and magazines, etc. Religion facts hinduism hinduism brahmachara grastha brahmacharga takes place during the schooling years the main idea is to acquire. One of the most common rituals of the jains is samayika, which translates to meditation. The essence of jainism is concern for the welfare of every being in the universe and for the health of universe itself. Jains are strict vegetarians and live in a way that minimises their use of worlds.
Jainism beliefs are generally distinguished from hindu beliefs because of a refusal to accept the brahmanic vedas as authoritative. This page lists some jain festivals and holy days, including the birthday of mahavira and paryushana, which started as a monastic day of reflection. The most momentous event, which occurred about 80 a. Mar 17, 2015 jainism is an indian religion that emphasizes complete nonviolence and asceticism. In the religious scriptures, the name arihantas and tirthankaras are interchangeably used because ordinarykevalis do not play any active roles in the religious. A glance at its contents will reveal the fact that glasenapp has covered almost all the salient features of jainism. One of the common traditions in hinduism is the namaste greeting. Jainism dont have any specific holy book like the bhagavad geeta,the quran or the bible. The development of a distinct language in space and ritual. Pleasure, one of the four encouraged goals of life in hinduism. It is considered holy because of all the tirthankaras are believed to obtain nirvana while meditating together on the top of the mountain. The history of jainism after lord mahavira is recorded in the jaina literature preserved in various indian languages. Also the religious books and scriptures were considered possessions and attachments.
Jainism is an ecologically responsible way of life which is nonviolent in thought, action, and deed. Lord mahavir, popularly regarded as the founder of jainism, was the last of the tirthankars who flourished from 599 to 527 b. A jain templelibrary holds sacred books, individually wrapped and labelled. Rituals, stories, and the virtues of jain wifehood m. The public auction is a prestigious way to fulfil the jain religious obligation to. It usually lasts for fortyeight minutes and during this time jains either quietly pray or chant prayers. So he could be called a reformer of the jain religion or rejunevator of the faith which was already and had a long tradition. The agam sutras show great reverence for all forms of life and strict codes of vegetarianism, asceticism, nonviolence, and opposition to war. Kama refers primarily to aesthetic pleasure, such as the enjoyment of music, drama, dance, painting, sculpture, and so on. Apr 23, 2008 in all cultures the rites and rituals are performed based on availability of resources, the region, historical time, and what the society considers to be most appropriate. Jainism the religion preached by mahavir and other tirthankars, with high emphasis on conquering the inner enemies.
Scholars of the vedas have held forth various texts and rituals that extol the earth. Jainism is based on three general principles called the three ratnas jewels. Indeed one of the bestknown hindu books in the west is the kama sutra, a manual for sexual activity. Find the top 100 most popular items in amazon books best sellers. Religion and culture of the jains by jyoti prasad jain 1983, bharatiya jnanpith will provide an orderly and clear. Jainism is a religion and philosophy native to india founded in. All sects agree that teaching was first transmitted orally, however, the two main sects of jainism, svetambara and digambara disagree on which scriptures are authoritative, or most important. Instead they have a collection of holy writings and scriptures. In fact, the householders are supposed to evolve to the monkhood in the later stages of life as was the case with the hinduism in the vedic era. While the majority of pilgrimage places in india are sacred to the followers of hinduism, there are numerous holy sites of other religions such as jainism, buddhism and islam. Specifically the notion that that the memories associated with a person somehow survives reincarnation is held by many neopagans. You simply bow and say namaste which shows respect and is means of a hello.
The holy teachers are called the jina, and they are the epitome of teaching for all jains, especially the jina mahavira. Thus, jain stories advocate the practice of jainism to achieve mok. Jainism is one of the three indian philosophies, the others being charvaka and buddhism, which do not accept the authority of vedas. One the religious, historical, and cultural contexts of jain narratives. In 300 words jainism is the philosophy and religion of jainas the followers of religion preached and practised by the thirthankaras, the last of whom was lord mahavir. We have certain scriptures which are considered as very sacred. The ultimate ritual is sallekhana, a religious death through ascetic. Jainism emerged in 6thcentury bce india, the same time buddhism was developing.
Jainism traditionally known as jain dharma, is an ancient indian religion. What are the major rituals, holy days, garments, ceremonies. This book presents a detailed fieldworkbased study of the ancient indian religion of jainism. Jainism ritual practices and religious institutions britannica. Although in hinduism it is mainly used to refer to widow immolation, the term sati means true woman a female hero. This religion, however, doesnt have as many followers as hinduism or buddhism, nor has it made as many inroads into the western world. Shvetambara monks are allowed to retain a few possessions such as a robe, an alms bowl, a whisk broom, and a mukhavastrika a piece of cloth held over the mouth to protect against the ingestion of small insects, which are presented by a senior monk at the time of initiation.
Jain theism concept of god in jainism harvard university. The most important jain teacher theerthankara was mahaveera. Bc as protests against the overdeveloped ritualism of hinduism, particularly its sacrificial cults, and the authority of the veda. The rites and rituals change with these four factors called dravya, kshetra, kala and bhava in jainism. Mar 17, 2015 the jain religion was born in india in the 6th century b. The site is on top of a mountain that is over 2,000 feet high. Contemplation of the soul includes thinking, analyzing and. Neither of these religions their religious philosophy around worship. Jainism is an ancient religion from india that teaches way to liberation by living the lives of harmlessness and renunciation. Sep 10, 2009 pilgrimage pilgrimage in jainism temples on the shatrunjaya hills, gujurat an important jain site. Apr 24, 2007 within sikhism, the holy book is called the sri guru granth sahib. A celebration of the birth of mahavira the founder of. Agams are the jain texts which are based on the discourse. The worldview and values of the vedic ritual tradition of the path of works.
Followers of jainism are called jains, a word derived from the sanskrit word jina, meaning victor. A holy mountain that jains often visit is in shatrunjaya in gujarat. Temple worship is mentioned in early texts that describe gods paying. The ultimate ritual is sallekhana, a religious death through. It is considered to be much more than a book, it is deemed to be the living guru of the sikhs. Jainism beliefs probably grew out of the teachings of mahavira, a fifthcentury b. The religious officials of jainism are nuns and monks who lead disciplined lives. List of books and articles about jainism online research. To hindus and buddhists, karma can result from a good or a bad deed. Hinduism and jainism comprise the oldest continually observed religious. These texts are collectively known as agams, the sacred books of the jain religion. Introduction to jainism, theory of karma, the six dravyas and more.
I might not have taken precautions and follow up necessary routines in carrying out the dispersion of urine or fecal material. Jain rituals and ceremonies introduction each religion has its own codes of conducts. Traditionsbeliefs like some of the other world religions,jainism is a religion of selfhelp. Followers of jainism are called jains, and there are about 4 million worldwide. Jainism ontario consultants on religious tolerance. These texts are the holy scriptures of the jain religion. Drawing on field research in northern gujarat and on the study of both ancient sanskrit and prakrit and m. Jain fundamentals jain rituals jain scriptures jain compassion. The present book is one of the best and stimulating books ever written by scholars on jainism. Jainism religion yale forum on religion and ecology. The holy teachers are called the jina, and they are the epitome of teaching for all. Jain agam literature jainism literature center articles. Jainism, hinduism, and buddhism share many key concepts derived from the sanskrit language and dialects that have enabled them to hone their religious debates.
Contemplation of the soul is the main part of jainism. Jainism traditionally known as jain dharma, is an ancient indian. The teachings of the twenty four tirthankaras were first composed in fourteen purvas and later in twelve angpravishthaagams an ang being a limb by ganadhars themselves. Jains rituals can be separated broadly in two parts. The religious thoughts are shaped by its philosophy. List of world religions and founders, religious books. The split did not incur doctrinal or moral differences but only. Famous for its promotion of nonviolence and often paired with buddhism 1 as one of ancient india 2s two greatest dissenting religions, jainism is currently professed by roughly 0. The holy book of jainism is a collection of texts known as agam literature or the agam sutras. History, society, philosophy and practice agustin paniker on.900 895 74 683 1617 1052 88 1054 354 215 1465 1090 904 287 72 1420 883 1356 811 1347 223 780 546 1486 647 599 659 901 1264 706 971 119 1031 1230 781